Excel macro to create ID cards

I have created by first macro with following functions
1. can create bulk ID cards with single click.
2. Data is in excel so it can be easily modified or changes.
3. Gave little flexibility in formatting

I will soon add help files for the macro.
Currently I have put restriction on number of ID card per run as I am not sure about it's stability.

download excel file

you may reach me at meenaachal at yahoo dot com

Accounting Concepts

Basic Accounting Concepts are:

· Entity Concept

separate from the existence of its owners. Accounts are kept for the entity as distinct from owners.

· Money Measurement Concept

a record is made only of those facts or transactions that can be expressed in monetary terms. The main advantage of money measurement concept is that even a layman is able to understand and appreciate the things stated in terms of money. However, the concept suffers from the following flaws:

a. Money does not have a constant value. The value of money changes because of inflation or deflation in the country.

b. All business assets cannot be measured in money terms. It is very difficult to calculate the value of goodwill or measure the competency or morale of employees.

· Going Concern Concept

business will exist for certain foreseeable future with the specified goal or for specified duration. Thus recording and valuation of long-term assets and liabilities are based on this assumption. Loan repayment are settled on this assumption.

o Business has an indefinite life.

o Assets are depreciated on the basis of their expected life without caring for their current values.

· Cost Concept

recorded in the book" of account at the actual price involved. . irrespective of any change in their market value. Acquisition cost is considered highly objective, reliable, definite and free from bias. the cost concept creates difficulties in its application in the following situations:

(a) Due to price rise, the financial position of a firm depicted on cost concept basis does not reflect true picture.
(b) Financial statements of two or more firms ,are not comparable due to changes in prices.
(c) Depreciation is computed on historical cost. This understates depreciation when current value of an asset is very high. So it becomes necessary to revalue the assets.
(d) This concept implies recording of all assets for which costs have been incurred but the assets like managerial competence, reputation or goodwill of the firm acquired over a period of time are not recorded.
(e) The exception to this concept of valuing assets at cost irrespective of its market value is the valuation of inventories. According to AS-2, inventories should be valued at cost or market price whichever is lower.

· Dual Aspect Concept

Assets = Capital + Liabilities

Every transaction entered into by a firm has two aspects, viz., debit and credit

· Full Disclosure Concept

Are for stakeholder , full information , any change in policy , accounting principles should be followed , proper annexure should be provided.

· Objectivity Concept

all accounting records should be supported by proper documents, e.g., invoices, cash memos, correspondence, agreements etc.

· Accrual Concept

revenue and costs are recognized as they are earned or incurred (and not as money is received or paid). helps in depiction of time financial position of the enterprise.

Accounting concepts related to income measurement are:

· The Time Period Concept (Periodicity Concept)

This concept indicates that the profitability of entity is to be measured periodically. The period for which income is measured is called the accounting period. Eg: for income tax purposes, financial year beginning on 1st April and ending on 31st March. However, for internal reporting the profitability report can be prepared monthly, quarterly or half yearly to facilitate better control and evaluation of performance.

· The Revenue Recognition (Realization) Concept

According to this concept, revenue is considered as being earned on the date on which it is realized. In case of sale of goods or service, revenue will be recognised when the seller of goods has transferred to the buyer the property in goods and no significant uncertainty exists regarding the sales price.

· The Matching Concept

Cost of goods sold and operating expenses incurred during the current financial period are recognized as expenses of the current financial period and will be matched with the revenue of the current period. Incomes received in advance or relating to earlier periods must not be taken into account. Similarly, expenses paid in advance are also to be ignored while computing the income of current accounting period.

· The Materiality Concept

Materiality is 'the characteristic attaching to a statement, fact or item whereby its disclosure or the method of giving it expression would be likely to influence the judgment of a reasonable person.' Financial statements should disclose all material items, that might influence the decisions of the user of the financial statements. Thus when the event is material, it should be disclosed. But if the item or event is immaterial, it may not be disclosed.

· The Consistency Concept

Accountancy principles generally allow more than one method of describing identical operating situations. Eq: st. line depreciation or exponential depreciation method. It is for this reason that the consistency principle requires that the basis of income measurement and preparation of financial statements should remain consistent for intra-firm and inter-firm comparison

· The Conservatism (Prudence) Concept

This requires understating rather than overstating revenue (income) and expense amounts that have a degree of uncertainty. The rule is to recognize revenue when it is reasonably certain and recognize expenses as soon as they are reasonably possible. The reasons for accounting in this manner are so that financial statements do not overstate the company’s financial position. Accounting chooses to err on the side of caution and protect investors from inflated or overly positive results.

1. Inventories are valued at lower of cost or market price.

2. Providing for doubtful debts and discount allowed to debtors but ignoring the probable discount received from creditor till the time final payments are made.

3. All the fixed assets are valued on historical costs irrespective of their market price except in the case of revaluation of business.

4. Preference of written down value method over straight-line method of depreciation, since the earlier one, provides for more depreciation in the initial years of use.

5. Valuing Joint Life Insurance Policy at its surrender value irrespective of amount of installments paid.

Chapter 3. Attitudes and Job satisfaction

Organizational Behavior (Twelfth Edition ) By Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge.

Attitude has three components
1. Cognition [think]
2. Affect [Feel]
3. Behavior [React]

Theory of cogitative dissonance by Leon Festinger
Align attitude to behavior = CONSISTENT
Attitude inconsistent with behavior = Cogitative dissonance (i.e. working against your own will ) high reward accompanying high dissonance tends to reduce the tension inherent in the dissonance.

Self – perception theory: you will tend to infer your attitude from your behavior. When your attitudes have been established for a while and are well defined those attitudes are likely to guide your behavior.

Major Job attitudes
1. Job satisfaction : ‘+’ ive feeling about job
2. Job Involvement : perceived performance level important to self worth, meaningfulness of their job. High level of job involvement is positively related to organizational citizenship.

3. Organizational commitment
3.1- Affective commitment : due to emotional attachment
3.2- Continuance commitment : due to monetary benefit
3.3- Normative Commitment : due to moral and ethical reasons
4.Perceived organizational support

Job Satisfaction measurement
1. Single Global rating method – asking direct single question
2. Summation of job facets – asking various questions and assigning weights to each question and adding them up to arrive at score.

Impact of dissatisfied employees on the workplace


Exit Voice (work for change)


Neglect Loyalty (wait for things to improve)


Chapter 1. What is Organizational Behavior

Who is manager ?
- get things done by people
- make decisions
- allocate resources
- direct them to attain goal

Function of manager?
- planning
- organizing
- leading
- controlling

Skills required by managers? (As identified by Robert katz)
- Technical skills – ability to apply knowledge or expertise
- Human skills – ability to work with people , motivate and understand them
- Conceptual skills – mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations

Henry Mintzberg model of managerial roles
- total 10 tasks are performed
- total 3 categories

1. Interpersonal role
a. figure head – symbolic head
b. Leader – provide motivation and direction
c. Liaison – maintain outside contact

2. Informational role
d. Monitor – serve as nerve centre for information
e. Disseminator- transmit external information to organization
f. Spokesperson – transfer organizational information to outside

3. Decisional role
g. Entrepreneur – search for opportunity and initiate projects
h. Disturbance handler – Responsible for corrective action
i. Negotiator – represent organization at major negotiations.

Effective Vs Successful managers studied by Fred Luthans
Effective manager spend more time in communication and least time in networking while successful managers in terms of promotion spend more time in networking.

Challenges and opportunities
- Increased foreign assignments
- Shifting of jobs to low cost labor countries
- People with different culture
- People with diversity
- Managing people during war and terror
- Improving customer service
- Improving people skills
- Coping with temporariness
- Improving ethical behavior

Organizational parameters
Independent variables have effect on dependent variable. Study of independent variable provide basis for study of dependent variables.
1. dependent
i. Productivity
ii. Turnover – people leaving organization
iii. Absenteeism
iv. Deviant workplace behavior
v. Org. citizenship behavior
vi. Job Satisfaction

2 Independent
vii. Individual level variable
viii. Group level variables
ix. Org. level variables

Back Tesing application for equity trading

I was searching for some software where i could use privious tick data for backtesting my trading skills. Software available in market are either costly or required some basic level of programming.

I have developed this basic application in VB6 (source code is available for developers for modification - leave a message with your email address).

I have used yahoo finacne to download stock data ( intra day tick data was not available ). You can load the file by clicking file and load data.
initial cash balance provided is 10,00,000. Click on next tick for next tick data.
I would be updating this application by providing volume graph just below the price graph and will try to put some moving averages.
you are free to provide suggestions for the application.
link for downloading the application

Corporate Finance: A Focused Approach

Download book and solution manual

Corporate Finance: A Focused Approach -1st Edition
+Solution manual of chapter 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,13,17
Michael C. Ehrhardt , Eugene F. Brigham
South-Western College Pub

Password to open solution of chapter 11: ayonbd2000
Download book+solution from mihd