Chapter 3. Attitudes and Job satisfaction

Organizational Behavior (Twelfth Edition ) By Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge.

Attitude has three components
1. Cognition [think]
2. Affect [Feel]
3. Behavior [React]

Theory of cogitative dissonance by Leon Festinger
Align attitude to behavior = CONSISTENT
Attitude inconsistent with behavior = Cogitative dissonance (i.e. working against your own will ) high reward accompanying high dissonance tends to reduce the tension inherent in the dissonance.

Self – perception theory: you will tend to infer your attitude from your behavior. When your attitudes have been established for a while and are well defined those attitudes are likely to guide your behavior.

Major Job attitudes
1. Job satisfaction : ‘+’ ive feeling about job
2. Job Involvement : perceived performance level important to self worth, meaningfulness of their job. High level of job involvement is positively related to organizational citizenship.

3. Organizational commitment
3.1- Affective commitment : due to emotional attachment
3.2- Continuance commitment : due to monetary benefit
3.3- Normative Commitment : due to moral and ethical reasons
4.Perceived organizational support

Job Satisfaction measurement
1. Single Global rating method – asking direct single question
2. Summation of job facets – asking various questions and assigning weights to each question and adding them up to arrive at score.

Impact of dissatisfied employees on the workplace


Exit Voice (work for change)


Neglect Loyalty (wait for things to improve)


Chapter 1. What is Organizational Behavior

Who is manager ?
- get things done by people
- make decisions
- allocate resources
- direct them to attain goal

Function of manager?
- planning
- organizing
- leading
- controlling

Skills required by managers? (As identified by Robert katz)
- Technical skills – ability to apply knowledge or expertise
- Human skills – ability to work with people , motivate and understand them
- Conceptual skills – mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations

Henry Mintzberg model of managerial roles
- total 10 tasks are performed
- total 3 categories

1. Interpersonal role
a. figure head – symbolic head
b. Leader – provide motivation and direction
c. Liaison – maintain outside contact

2. Informational role
d. Monitor – serve as nerve centre for information
e. Disseminator- transmit external information to organization
f. Spokesperson – transfer organizational information to outside

3. Decisional role
g. Entrepreneur – search for opportunity and initiate projects
h. Disturbance handler – Responsible for corrective action
i. Negotiator – represent organization at major negotiations.

Effective Vs Successful managers studied by Fred Luthans
Effective manager spend more time in communication and least time in networking while successful managers in terms of promotion spend more time in networking.

Challenges and opportunities
- Increased foreign assignments
- Shifting of jobs to low cost labor countries
- People with different culture
- People with diversity
- Managing people during war and terror
- Improving customer service
- Improving people skills
- Coping with temporariness
- Improving ethical behavior

Organizational parameters
Independent variables have effect on dependent variable. Study of independent variable provide basis for study of dependent variables.
1. dependent
i. Productivity
ii. Turnover – people leaving organization
iii. Absenteeism
iv. Deviant workplace behavior
v. Org. citizenship behavior
vi. Job Satisfaction

2 Independent
vii. Individual level variable
viii. Group level variables
ix. Org. level variables